All posts by relaiyavalli

 Social Isolation and its Psychological Effects

With the recent COVID-19 outbreak, social distancing has been pushed to the collective forefront of the nation. We have all been advised to stay home, remain a certain distance from certain people, and to not attend large social gatherings. While I understand this is all for our safety, it does beg a few questions. What is going to be the long term effects of our long stay in? How are we going to cope with not being able to see people other than your own family for weeks, and maybe even months? It is all going to be interesting to see what actually will happen later down the line, but for know, let’s piece together what we know about social isolation. 

First of all, why are we being asked to stay home in the first place? It seems like only older people or immunocompromised individuals are truly at risk of being in severe or critical condition. So why everyone? The reason is quite simple. By avoiding contact with others, we can reduce the spread of any disease, not just COVID-19. Also, by staying home, we “flatten the curve,” and don’t overly strain the load on our hospitals. If less people get the infection, hospitals would be able to better cope with the sudden increase of patients. Viruses like these can also be spread by something called “community spread.” This is when people get infected by the virus without any travel or known contact with an afflicted person. This is mainly because coronaviruses like COVID-19 are able to stick around in the air for some time, so infection without a vector, like a person, is definitely possible with this disease. By limiting interactions with others and by staying home as much as possible, we can reduce the severity and spread of viruses now and in the future.

The Press Stories

The main question that’s on my mind, however, is how this prolonged social isolation will affect us psychologically. Already, I’m feeling like my social distancing has been going on for years, when in reality, at the time of writing, I’m on my third day of this. However, this is not the first time that humans have felt this way when they are isolated or trapped in a certain place or situation. This phenomenon is known as “cabin fever.” It’s not a disease, but rather it is the restlessness, claustrophobia, and general irritability that can be caused by being stuck in a place for an extended period of time. There is a single term for the effects caused by cabin fever: stir-crazy, where “stir” refers to a prison. Cabin fever can cause more serious afflictions like extended sleep, distrust of the people around you, or even urges to go outside, even in bad conditions. Cabin fever can also lead to the sufferer making extremely irrational decisions that could cost them their life, such as suicide, paranoia, or the aforementioned abadonment of the safety of their cabin in bad weather. Cabin fever doesn’t just apply to being in a nice cabin in the Alaskan wilderness, however. One can get the symptoms of cabin fever in basically any place where they are stuck for an extended period of time. 

Why does cabin fever occur in the first place? What goes on in our brains that tells us to make some extremely irrational decisions, even when you are already safe? Cabin fever and other related afflictions are mostly caused by a drop in serotonin, a neurotransmitter. Serotonin regulates mood and social behavior, so it’s clear why it can cause these afflictions, but there is definitely more to this mystery. 

Wikipedia

Melatonin levels could also have a factor, as it regulates sleep patterns and mood. However, seasonal affective disorder can mostly be attributed to natural causes, like changes in sunlight. Sometimes, our circadian rhythm is unable to cope with the sudden increase or decrease in hours that the sun is out, causing problems all over our brains and bodies. But circadian rhythm doesn’t really explain cabin fever. Serotonin is definitely a common factor between the two, as evidenced by as study performed by multiple neuroscience research facilities in Denmark and Canada. They revealed the various signaling pathways that are affected by seasonal affective disorder. In their study of 19 females, they found that the 5-HTT pathway, or the cerebral serotonin transporter, is not effectively downregulated in females that experience regular seasonal affective disorder. The subjects that were more susceptible to the disorder were actually genetically different from those who were not, as they had the shorter 5-HTTLPR genotype. This means that seasonal affective disorder could actually be a genetic disorder that could be passed down from generation to generation, but it’s unknown, as there haven’t been enough studies on the matter. Below are some pictures from the study, with red areas representing increased 5-HTT responses with females without and with seasonal affective disorder. 

NCBI

Now that we know what can cause cabin fever, how can we avoid it? We are all going to be stuck indoors for the next few weeks, if not months, so it is paramount to keep our mental and physical health up. Sarita Robinson, a psychology lecturer at the University of Central Lancashire, has shared some tips on how to avoid the negative effects of cabin fever in these trying times. One of the best things to do is to boost your immune system. You are not only fighting against COVID-19, you are also fighting against cabin fever. Obviously, good exercise and diet are very important, as getting the right vitamins and keeping your muscles engaged are very important for boosting your immune response, but they are not the only thing to do. You can also watch an interesting movie or listen to music that you like. Psychologists believe that keeping the brain interested is also a very effective way to improve your immune response. Structuring your day is also very important. By keeping a rigid schedule, you avoid getting stuck in a rut or being bored quickly as you always have something else to do. Maintaining contact with your friends and family is also important. If you intentionally keep yourself alone, you are exponentially increasing your chances of getting cabin fever. Finally, you want to avoid conflict. This is the main cliche of cabin fever, as it tends to cause wanton aggression and anger towards your friends and loved ones. Make sure you follow the above tips and stay positive about this whole situation. The last thing you want to do is fight with your loved ones in these times.

 Vox

Finally, I want to close this month’s post on reducing anxiety about the COVID-19 situation in general. It is a very serious thing, but some people are becoming more anxious and nervous than ever, and I think it is important to remain calm and collected. There is a fantastic article I read on theladders.com detailing ways that we can stay calm. Every person calms down differently, so I am not going to share any specific tips. 

Remember that it is very important to stay safe and healthy, and COVID-19 is not a joke. It absolutely has the power to not just make you very sick, but it can also kill your loved ones. This is the worst pandemic we have experienced in a very long time, and it is important to follow the recommendations of the CDC, WHO, and other health authorities. Wash your hands as frequently as possible, practice social distancing, and remain hygienic. Thank you all for reading, and stay safe. 

Port City Daily

Additional Reading:

Signal v. Noise

The Press Stories

Cabin fever

The Meaning of “Cabin Fever”: The Journal of Social Psychology: Vol 123, No 1

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic

Serotonin Syndrome

Brain Networks Implicated in Seasonal Affective Disorder: A Neuroimaging PET Study of the Serotonin Transporter

Coronavirus: how to self-isolate

Harvard professor shares tips on how to work through the extreme Coronavirus anxiety cycle

 

 One Listen Review – Lil Uzi Vert – Eternal Atake

Preface: This is the first album to be reviewed with my new format: a one-listen review. I listen to the album once and give my thoughts on it as soon as possible. This way, I will be able to publish many more reviews than previously before, but still, give you guys the same insights. There will still be albums with my traditional review style, and with this format, redux reviews will be introduced as a method of showing if my opinions have changed on a previously reviewed album. Again, thanks for viewing the site.

Lil Uzi Vert’s second studio album, Eternal Atake, has finally arrived. We made it through the eternal await, with the album coming well over two years after the initial announcement. I’ll be sharing my initial opinions on the album, and I’ll tell you an initial rating at the end. Let’s jump into the follow-up to Luv is Rage 2

Baby Pluto – A fast start. Uzi has an infectious flow, and he’s rapping much more monotone than before. This style reminds me of a younger, Tha Carter III Lil Wayne. Uzi is absolutely fired up on this intro, and he won’t be stopped. In love with this one so far.

Lo Mein – Interesting title. Reminds me of Young Nudy’s food titles, a la Blue Cheese Salad. Whoa, the beat just dropped. The beat and the synths are on point so far, and I’m impressed with the lyrical range. The “up, up, uppity” part is memorable, as well as the “It’s amazing to me” refrain. Nothing out of the ordinary so far until Uzi finds a UFO at the end of the track.

Silly Watch – I like the piano melody so far! It gives a lot of character to the track. Uzi maintains the same braggadocious flow and lyrics of the last two tracks. The “silly watch” portion of the track is only really one line, “Got a Richard Millie, this is not a silly watch.” The Hugh Hefner line really stands out. It’s hilarious, and that’s really the overall theme so far, it seems. The flow on the track really seems like a slower version of Free Uzi.

POP – Whoo, I am not feeling the denial/the Nile lines at the beginning. Also not a huge fan of the beat, but I do commend the energy coming from Uzi in this track. Multi, multi, multi?! He is really rapping angry and with higher energy than I have ever seen from him. What a high energy opening we have so far. 

You Better Move – He sampled the Windows pinball game! This one hasn’t grabbed me like some of the earlier songs, however. The 808 hits hard, though. The sample gets really, really quite boring after three minutes of it. The vocal inflections are good, and the iPod line is my favorite from this song. 

Homecoming – Uzi is still absolutely breathless, six tracks in. I’d be fine if the whole album was like these first six tracks. I’m deeply impressed with the energy from this opening act. This is probably tied with Lo Mein as my favorite beat so far. “Anthony Davis, don’t deal with the Pelicans.” I wonder what the Pelicans are for Uzi in this track. Oh, he also escaped his entrapment in the UFO after being abducted.

I’m Sorry – Typical Uzi love song. Not a huge fan of the extreme tone shift. I’d have liked for there to be a much more transitional track between these sections. I think the first third of the album was the “Baby Pluto” portion, the second third is the “Renji” portion, and the final third would be the “Lil Uzi Vert” section. We’ll see if that holds through, but I wish I could have just skipped this one. 

Celebration Station – Same sort of chord progression in this one, and again, I’m not a fan of the love song/dance fusion. I definitely think that this one will get the crowds moving at his concerts, however. I liked the “Look at his album, it’s floppin’ again” line, however. This is way too generic for my liking, again. Uzi update – he is making his way around the UFO.

Bigger Than Life – This builds off of the outro of Celebration Station, and the guitar beat is much, much welcomed. I am finally impressed with the production again, and Uzi is flowing again. The vibe of the song still fits this second third of the album, especially with the choir crooning in the background. The first huge surprise of the album. 

Chrome Heart Tags – I was expecting big things with Chief Keef on the production, but I am left sorely, sorely disappointed. It’s not anything amazing in terms of melody or backing, but the percussion is not bad. Really weird lines in this one. Percolate? What does that even mean in the context of this song? Maybe he put it in just to rhyme. Still off-balance, these last two songs are still big surprises, some good and some bad. 

Bust Me – OK, at this point, all of the songs in the “Renji” section are really blending together, besides Bigger Than Life. All I’m going to say is that I’m glad that the whole album isn’t like this. Maybe Uzi can perform this one live with Kanye’s Sunday Service Choir. At least we get some story development with him leaving “EA, the dark world.” 

Prices – Oh my goodness, this is the way back sample. He pitched it up, and wow. Wow, this is my favorite song so far. I am so impressed by the lyrical content, the flow, the beat. Everything came together on this track. Really impressed by lines like the vitiligo one, the Off-White MoMA one, and others. This is really the culmination of everything that Uzi represents.

Urgency (feat. Syd) – This song begins the final third of the album, which is the “Lil Uzi Vert” section. Syd’s vocals are always welcome, and she actually adds quite a lot to this song, even though she doesn’t have her own verse. This is what an Uzi love song should be. NOT I’m Sorry or Celebration Station. Take note. 

Venetia – The beat is quite interesting. The synth melody is really unorthodox, but it works. This is what I think is the real opening of the Uzi section, and I think that it’s a great song. I think that the “turn a gay girl into a straight” is a bit insensitive, considering that Syd was literally on the track right before this. Huh.

Secure the Bag – I like the spacey, ethereal beat, but do not like the very repetitive, boring vocals. But, the flow is good, and overall, the track is good enough. The “I was on a roll” is quite memorable. As well as the “this is a game” line. Nearly to the end, folks.

P2 – Oh wow, it’s a part two to XO TOUR Llif3. I find it really difficult to say the new lyrics instead of the old ones. I think TM88 is still on the production, but Uzi did a fantastic job closing the album in the same way that he closed out Luv is Rage 2. The flow is quite impressive and the beat is just as good as XO TOUR Llif3

Final thoughts – I did enjoy listening to this album, even though at points, it was very, very tedious. I’m looking at you, “Renji” section. I didn’t look at Futsal Shuffle 2020 or That Way, mainly because they are both bonus tracks. The overall rollout of this album was tedious and rough, and I think it’s very tough to say if it lived up to the hype. What it did was explore new facets of Lil Uzi Vert, and I think that he did a great job with the album. One small thing: I wish he took the Eternal Atake concept farther than he did, but as I said, it’s good enough.

Verdict – 7.7/10

 

 The Effects of Exercise on the Brain

You have definitely heard from somewhere that “your brain is a muscle.” You need to keep your brain engaged and exercised to make sure that it is at top efficiency. But how does physical exercise affect brain function? 

From a very basic view, it seems that exercise increases blood flow around the body, including the brain. More blood means more brain function, right? Yes. A basic effect of exercise on the brain is increased blood flow, which is required for more intensive brain tasks like solving complex math equations or more advanced spatial thinking. The cerebral circulation around the brain is mostly autoregulated, and blood tends to go to areas that the brain needs it. The below diagram shows how blood flow to the brain changes when going from idle activities to exercise.

AHealthBlog

Areas in red represent the maximum amount of blood flow to that area of the brain, with blue representing the least amount of blood flow. 

Increased blood flow is not the only benefit from increased exercise. Hormones associated with “runner’s high,” a sensation of euphoria and ease that sometimes come with running activities, decrease stress hormones in the brain. Also, research from UCLA revealed that there is a strong correlation between exercise and new growth factors in the brain. Growth factors are naturally occurring substances that stimulate cellular growth and healing, and in this case, the growth factors caused by exercise are able to make the growth of new neuronal connections easier. 

Wellcome Collection

Moving from a physiological to a psychological perspective, exercise is also able to help memory and thinking skills, along with positive changes in mood and behavior. According to a study done by Harvard Health, regular exercise can increase the size of certain portions of the brain. The study focused on the hippocampus, an area that regulates learning and memory. 

PNAS

Indirectly, exercise can also improve sleep, and reduce stress and anxiety. 

It seems that exercise has more than a positive effect on the brain. All of the studies seem to be done on light aerobic exercise, which are the ones that get you sweating and moving. Resistance training and muscle toning exercises are also correlated with the same positive effects but are not as effective as aerobic exercise. It is also safe to assume that more intensive aerobic exercise would have the same effects. 

Further reading: 

Kirk I. Erickson, Michelle W. Voss, Ruchika Shaurya Prakash, Chandramallika Basak, Amanda Szabo, Laura Chaddock, Jennifer S. Kim, Susie Heo, Heloisa Alves, Siobhan M. White, Thomas R. Wojcicki, Emily Mailey, Victoria J. Vieira, Stephen A. Martin, Brandt D. Pence, Jeffrey A. Woods, Edward McAuley, and Arthur F. Kramer – Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory

Q.Dinga, S.Vaynman, M.Akhavan, Z.Ying, F.Gomez-Pinilla – Insulin-like growth factor I interfaces with brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated synaptic plasticity to modulate aspects of exercise-induced cognitive function

Heidi Godman – Regular exercise changes the brain to improve memory, thinking skills

 

 Album Review – Travis Scott, JACKBOYS – JACKBOYS

  • Continuing with his recurring theme of yearly releases, Travis Scott returns with JACKBOYS, a collaboration album with his label, Cactus Jack. The main culprits are Scott, Sheck Wes, Luxury Tax, and Don Toliver, with occasional features from non-Cactus-Jack-artists. The album is a messy hodgepodge of hastily cobbled together beats, and doesn’t have a coherent identity. There are few high moments and many low moments, and the album is definitely not a follow-up to ASTROWORLD.

  • The opener is the familiar HIGHEST IN THE ROOM, but it is a remix featuring Lil Baby and ROSALÍA. The track is just as stale as before, with only the first verse being potent. The ROSALÍA feature is definitely a miss, and I could have gone without hearing her attempt Scott’s famous ad-libs. Lil Baby’s verse is actually quite solid, but can’t save this song. Mike Dean’s outro synths are just as good as before, but I still wish it were longer.

  • JACKBOYS is simply a menagerie of opening synths to set the tone of the album. But HIGHEST IN THE ROOM just did that. This should have been the first song on the album. Our first impressions were already made, but again, this is a nice tonesetter.

  • GANG GANG is a track that features the entire club of Jackboys, and is an interesting piece. The instrumental is really, really barebones and stripped down. I don’t appreciate how barren it is (it reminds me of Hot Shower). However, the vocals from Scott and especially Don Toliver are incredible on this track. Don’s chorus is one of the few high points I mentioned earlier, and I feel that this could have just been a solo track from Don, but instead it was muddled by a middling Sheck Wes verse and a disappointing Luxury Tax verse.

  • HAD ENOUGH is the first thematic track on the album, and it deals with Don Toliver, and the featured Migos, talking about a girl who has “had enough” with them. This is unquestionably the most complete song on the album, and the vocals of Don Toliver mesh well with Quavo and Offset’s.

  • OUT WEST really pains me. On one hand, you have a generic, boring flute beat that doesn’t get me going or make me even remotely interested. But on the other hand, the Young Thug feature is perfect for this song. He simply glides on the garbage beat, and crudely describes his sexual escapades. Scott’s vocals are once again, in my opinion, uninspired.

  • WHAT TO DO? is what I came to listen for. This is what I expect from a Travis Scott project, and it is incredible. Travis finally shows up when the project needed him most, and the Don Toliver verses are top-notch. This guy doesn’t miss. I peg this as my favorite track on the album, despite the again lame beat.

  • JACKBOYS closes with GATTI, a collaboration between La Flame and newcomer Pop Smoke, who offers more of a UK grime style. He and Scott don’t mesh well together. The song is disjointed and Pop Smoke is unlistenable at times. The beat is, like most, if not all the songs on this tape, boring and uninspired.

  • JACKBOYS filled me with hope when it was announced, and it seriously disappointed. You don’t have to take my word for it; ask any Travis Scott fan and they’ll share the same sentiments. The album is a sloppy, unfinished, mess. Only two, maybe three, songs stand out. I hope Cactus Jack can rectify this with the release of pack 2. Until then.

  • Verdict – 3.7/10

 Album Review – Tyler, the Creator – IGOR

  • Here it is. I finally got around to listening to the whole thing, and reviewing it.

  • Tyler, the Creator’s sixth studio album, IGOR, is a deeply conceptualized expression of falling in love. The album effortlessly conveys feelings of love, anger, and acceptance, and wraps it up in a nice, pink package. Coming off the success of Flower Boy, the album maintains some of the same musical nuances from that album, while introducing a whole new sound that is filled with crunchy 808s and intricate synth work. I honestly can’t think of many albums that are able to replicate the narrative aspect of IGOR.

  • The album begins with IGOR’S THEME, which begins with a Yeezus-style 808 that is unaccompanied by nothing, until the percussion comes in, introducing the Lil Uzi Vert feature. The feature is the start of something weird, which is Tyler’s fascination with voice modulation. He pitches up the Uzi feature to the point where it is almost impossible to identify the feature. The song mainly serves as an intro to the album’s sound, but doesn’t really introduce any thematic elements.

  • EARFQUAKE finally introduces Tyler’s love interest, claiming that they make his “earf quake.” We get a great vocal feature from Charlie Wilson and a, well, interesting feature from Playboi Carti. Thanks to the kind folks at Genius, we understand one of the most unintelligible verses from a musical artist, but it all plays into the central theme of the song. It combines styles from Cherry Bomb and Flower Boy while adding a pinch of the new stuff to make it one of the strongest songs on the album.

  • I THINK shows Tyler falling in love, accompanied by Solange and a deep, pulsing beat that wouldn’t be out of place on a Kanye project. The instrumental is truly the best part of the song, and the “bridge” is one of the best musical moments of the album in my opinion.

  • The next track is a transitional piece, EXACTLY WHAT YOU RUN FROM YOU END UP CHASING, and it’s simply a spoken word by Jerrod Carmichael. The next track, RUNNING OUT OF TIME shows the relationship that’s been established eroding, and how Tyler is “running out of time to make [his love interest] love [him].” Tyler sings heavily on this track, continuing the absence of a full-on rap verse.

  • But that soon ends with the suddenly angry NEW MAGIC WAND. Tyler raps about going to great lengths to get to his love interest, which could even mean killing both his love interest and his love interest’s ex, evidenced by the line, “She’s gonna be dead, I just got a magic wand,” with the “magic wand” representing a gun.

  • Tyler goes full Kanye in A BOY IS A GUN*, flipping the same sample West used in Bound 2. We finally see Tyler slowly coming to terms that he is not going to win over his love interest, and concludes with a “stay away from me” near the end. The beat is so well produced and interlaces extremely well with Tyler’s voice.

  • The next track, PUPPET, brings Kanye as a feature, and deals with Tyler still being under the influence of his lover. His every move is basically dictated by them, and he can’t allow himself to pull away like he wanted to on the last track. Production-wise, it’s a very interesting mix of synths, and eventually he adds an ambulance siren, of all things, near the end of the track.

  • WHAT’S GOOD is another aggressive cut that enlists upcoming UK rapper slowthai. The song has little to do with the story that’s been written so far, but it’s energy makes it a great song to listen to. It’s unclear what is meant by slowthai’s “I see the light.” Maybe it fits thematically, maybe it doesn’t. We may never know.

  • GONE, GONE/THANK YOU follows Tyler’s formula of making all of his tenth tracks multi-part songs. Everybody’s vocals are pitched way up in this one, even CeeLo Green on the chorus. This is a beautiful song filled with great moments, and Tyler is officially over his lover. He says thanks for all of the good times, but basically signs off from the relationship.

  • I DON’T LOVE YOU ANYMORE kind of negates the last track by showing that Tyler is still hurt by the rejection of A BOY IS A GUN*. He is basically lying to himself on the track to make himself feel better but in reality, he is so bummed out by the failure of his relationship.

  • ARE WE STILL FRIENDS? is a crooning, guitar-filled outro to a great album. Tyler is playing with the idea of being friends with his lover after their relationship didn’t work out. The guitar solo is deeply reminiscent of Mike Dean’s on Devil in a New Dress.

  • I was floored by the quality of musical and lyrical content on IGOR. The storytelling and musical emotions that go along with it are unmatched. This is definitely one of the best albums of the year, if not of the decade.

  • Verdict – 9.7/10

 Album Review – Kanye West – Jesus is King

  • Kanye West’s 9th studio album is once again a sharp departure from previous projects. He abandons what made him famous to return to what made him famous. Jesus Walks. The song that changed how music looks at religion has been rendered at Ye’s Sunday Services many times this year, and Kanye is supposedly born again. Let’s see what a newly baptized West comes up with in JESUS IS KING. Every Hour is simply the Sunday Service choir singing an upbeat chorus on how Jesus is so important in every waking moment of his follower’s lives. Selah is the real dark, brooding intro to this album, and features a new writing style from Kanye.

  • Gone are any swear words, but he still keeps the energy going throughout the whole track. It is incredibly refreshing, and the “hallelujahs” are incredible tension builders. Follow God is something you might find on The Life of Pablo, especially with the “stretch my hands” solo. The flow is so good on this track, but it’s also really, really short. I wish so badly that it was longer, even just like two and a half minutes. This would have been one of Ye’s best had he done that. Anyways, moving on to Closed on Sunday, a song dedicated entirely to the fast food restaurant Chick-Fil-A. One of the corniest lines of the year has been delivered multiple times on this slow track, but hey, you have to do what you have to do. On God is the typical trap song, with production coming from Pi’erre Bourne. Playboi Carti would definitely be at home on this beat, and it’s interesting to see Kanye put his own spin on it, even if he cut the line referencing XXXTENTACION.

  • Next, we have Everything We Need, a renamed track from Yandhi, the scrapped album of last year. XXXTENTACION’s verse was cut, and another Kanye verse was added, but otherwise, the song is essentially the same. We then move to Water, a funky guitar beat housing an extremely weak Kanye verse. God Is is a marvelous display of love and emotion. Repurposing a 70s gospel song, Ye adds his extremely emotional vocals that show his genuine love for God and Christ. Hands On is a Saint Pablo-esque track that features true gospel singer Fred Hammond. The verse on this one is excellent, and Hammond’s vocals are so wonderful to listen to. Use This Gospel is another Yandhi track that has been repurposed for the better. The song reunites Clipse and even invites Kenny G for an orgasmic saxophone solo. The album’s outro, Jesus is Lord, is a shortened version of the same song from West’s IMAX film. Overall, the album has some extremely high points, but also has some low points, especially lyrically. It’s still a great album, but is nowhere close to Ye’s previous body of work.

  • Verdict – 7.1/10

 Wind Ensemble vs Orchestra

 

  • No strings attached …

    A wind symphony provides all voices from a traditional orchestra using only wind and percussion instruments. That is, there are no string sections: violins, violas, and cellos. This is done by adding many more brass and woodwind players and percussionists playing both pitched and rhythm instruments. A wind symphony may employ the harp or string bass and soloists on any instrument.

    The sound of a wind symphony is unique. Some feel it has the characteristic sound of a large and powerful pipe organ. Yet the music is an artistically combined sound. Individual musicians intone their own separate “pipes” and percussionists create sounds striking a wide variety of instruments. This carefully blended interpretation breathes life into the composer’s work, which in turn communicates in a way that only fine music can.

    The following on-line article discusses the evolution of the Wind Symphony.

    Strike up the Band…once again!

    A New Look at the Music of the Wind Bands

    by Adrian Tan

  • Actually we’ve already seen these ensembles in different forms, from the serenade wind bands of Mozart to the English brass bands, to Sousa’s marching band, Glen Miller’s big band, to the military bands in every country plus the many wind orchestras and symphonic bands which exist in the world

    I have heard renditions of the Russian and Ludmilla Overture with the daunting running passages executed with accuracy and finesse, as well as performances of Stravinsky’s Firebird Suite, Debussy’s La Mer and even Bach’s Passacaglia and Fugue in C-minor without the slightest hint of ineptness or fault. No doubt the wind band is different sounds different from an orchestra but its unique sonority is perhaps the best reason why we should pay attention to these new ensembles. They can generate beautiful phrases and strains never heard before by musicians who have challenged the limitations of the wind band, and sweet music literally with the air in their lungs – each delicate phrase a sigh and each note in the grandest fanfare a test of stamina and strength.

    Many people have this impression that the orchestra is a superior ensemble as compared to the wind symphony. I would like to stress that they are both distinct and unique ensembles, each with a vast and diverse repertoire which are not meant to be compared. Even when the wind band takes on orchestral repertoire, one must understand that it is individual performance and interpretation, not the wind band trying to imitate an orchestra.

  • In recent years, many composers have also looked with favour at the potential of the wind band, creating a potent repertoire for this medium. It began with the marches from the pen of the March King, John Philip Sousa, who was a master of counterpoint and melody. ——-Paul Hindemith, Ralph VaughanWilliams and Gustav Holst wrote now what we consider standard repertory for the wind band. ——-

  • In recent years, talented young composers have accepted the pen from these masters and have produced much more music for this beautiful medium. Dutch composer Johan De Meij (b.1953) composed The Lord of the Rings, a symphony for wind band which has received numerous nominations and awards. [Performed by CCWS on May 30, 2003]

  • Composers aside, distinguished conductors have guided their ensembles to international acclaim. The most famous of which is Frederick Fennell, who released a definitive collection of the wind band repertoire with Mercury Records and who is now conductor of the world-famous Eastman Wind Ensemble and the Japanese Tokyo Kosei Wind Orchestra. Another great musician is Eugene Corporon, who now leads the prolific North Texas Wind Symphony (University of North Texas College of Music) which in 1989 initiated the Klavier Wind Recording Project which to date have yielded 15 recordings. These feature over 100 compositions by more than 80 composers amongst which are Shostakovich and avant garde musician John Adams. [Resident of Piedmont, California.]

  • I would also like to point out that locally and overseas, the wind bands serve as an excellent venue for young musicians to learn their instrument and to be exposed to music. Being financially and practically more viable to set up than orchestras in schools, many who have had the courage to further their musical education had their roots in the band movement.

  • Perhaps what we should address is the education of these young musicians in school bands and the type of exposure they get from band music. There are many, many poor compositions out there which seem to have only commercial appeal but not aesthetic value. These should only be used at best to whet the musical appetites of young musicians and not to be hailed as masterworks by their teachers in front of these impressionable youths. Properly developed, this channel will definitely be a major contributor to the few serious musicians we have locally and internationally.

  • Here is another medium for music which all serious musicians should consider again. Give it a chance and you’ll be duly rewarded.

  • As for those of us who have had our heads stuck in band music all this while, it’s about time we looked beyond the musical horizon and realize what we have missed. We recognize music by its sound, meaning and emotion, and not merely by its instrumental make-up. We all have our preferences … but first lend an ear to the wind bands. You’ll be surprised.

    (published on-line January 21, 1998,

  • Wind ensembles and symphonic bands are two instrumental groups that play similar literature but have different numbers of instruments. A symphonic band is a much larger group with more diverse instruments, while the wind ensemble’s small numbers make it better for small concert halls and more complex pieces. The more musicians in an ensemble, the harder it is to control the ensemble and play virtuosic music.

  • Music

    Some pieces of music are written specifically for wind ensembles and don’t sound correct when played in a symphonic band. For various reasons, the music for a wind ensemble must be more carefully constructed. In a symphonic band, it is possible to allow individual players to rest within a composition, while it becomes very obvious when a player drops out in a wind ensemble. The advantages of a symphonic band includes the ability to play longer pieces and provide greater textural diversity. The symphonic band has more instruments, but also retains the capability to reduce to one player per part for more intimate sections of the literature.

  • Wind Ensemble

    The wind ensemble typically includes the best musicians from an area or school. These ensembles are seen as elite groups in which each player must perform with precision and accuracy. Each player in the wind ensemble must retain good tone quality on their instrument, as well. Since each individual player can be heard more easily in a wind ensemble, any mistake during an ensemble performance stands out.

  • Symphonic Band

    In a symphonic band, a greater number of flutes, clarinets, bassoons, euphoniums, trombones, tubas and trumpets significantly increases the sound of the ensemble. The typical symphonic band has between 90 and 100 musicians, including a percussion section, brass and keyboards in addition to woodwinds. It is less crucial for members of a symphonic band to have high tone production on their instruments, as individual instruments are masked more effectively in the larger group. These instrumentalists still must avoid playing incorrect notes and rhythms.

  • Timbre

    The wind ensemble has the ability to create a more distinct sound where each of the individual instrument colors come through. Think of a crowded room; the more people you have, the less you can distinguish between individual voices. With the symphonic band, the music of each instrument blends into a single homogeneous sound. Conductors have long argued over which ensemble provides the better sound for wind music.

  • Video References:

 Schizophrenia – a scientific view

 

  • Signs and Symptoms

    Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. In rare cases, children have schizophrenia too. The symptoms of schizophrenia fall into three categories: positive, negative, and cognitive.

    Positive symptoms: “Positive” symptoms are psychotic behaviors not generally seen in healthy people. People with positive symptoms may “lose touch” with some aspects of reality. Symptoms include:

  • Hallucinations

    Delusions

    Thought disorders (unusual or dysfunctional ways of thinking)

    Movement disorders (agitated body movements)

    Negative symptoms: “Negative” symptoms are associated with disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors. Symptoms include: “Flat affect” (reduced expression of emotions via facial expression or voice tone)

    Reduced feelings of pleasure in everyday life

    Difficulty beginning and sustaining activities

  • Reduced speaking

    Cognitive symptoms: For some patients, the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are subtle, but for others, they are more severe and patients may notice changes in their memory or other aspects of thinking. Symptoms include: Poor “executive functioning” (the ability to understand information and use it to make decisions)

    Trouble focusing or paying attention. Problems with “working memory” (the ability to use the information immediately after learning it

  • Risk Factors

    There are several factors that contribute to the risk of developing schizophrenia. Genes and environment: Scientists have long known that schizophrenia sometimes runs in families. However, there are many people who have schizophrenia who don’t have a family member with the disorder and conversely, many people with one or more family members with the disorder who do not develop it themselves.

    Scientists believe that many different genes may increase the risk of schizophrenia, but that no single gene causes the disorder by itself. It is not yet possible to use genetic information to predict who will develop schizophrenia.

    Scientists also think that interactions between genes and aspects of the individual’s environment are necessary for schizophrenia to develop. Environmental factors may involve:

    Exposure to viruses

    Malnutrition before birth

    Problems during birth

  • Psychosocial factors

    Different brain chemistry and structure: Scientists think that an imbalance in the complex, interrelated chemical reactions of the brain involving the neurotransmitters (substances that brain cells use to communicate with each other) dopamine and glutamate, and possibly others, plays a role in schizophrenia.

    Some experts also think problems during brain development before birth may lead to faulty connections. The brain also undergoes major changes during puberty, and these changes could trigger psychotic symptoms in people who are vulnerable due to genetics or brain differences

  • Treatments and Therapies

    Because the causes of schizophrenia are still unknown, treatments focus on eliminating the symptoms of the disease. Treatments include:

    1. Antipsychotics
      Antipsychotic medications are usually taken daily in pill or liquid form. Some antipsychotics are injections that are given once or twice a month. Some people have side effects when they start taking medications, but most side effects go away after a few days. Doctors and patients can work together to find the best medication or medication combination, and the right dose. Check the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website: , for the latest information on warnings, patient medication guides, or newly approved medications.
    2. Psychosocial Treatments
      These treatments are helpful after patients and their doctor find a medication that works. Learning and using coping skills to address the everyday challenges of schizophrenia helps people to pursue their life goals, such as attending school or work. Individuals who participate in regular psychosocial treatment are less likely to have relapses or be hospitalized. For more information on psychosocial treatments, see the Psychotherapies webpage on the NIMH website.
    3. Coordinated specialty care (CSC)
      This treatment model integrates medication, psychosocial therapies, case management, family involvement, and supported education and employment services, all aimed at reducing symptoms and improving quality of life. The NIMH Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode (RAISE) research project seeks to fundamentally change the trajectory and prognosis of schizophrenia through coordinated specialty care treatment in the earliest stages of the disorder. RAISE is designed to reduce the likelihood of long-term disability that people with schizophrenia often experience and help them lead productive, independent lives.
  • How can I help someone I know with schizophrenia?

    Caring for and supporting a loved one with schizophrenia can be hard. It can be difficult to know how to respond to someone who makes strange or clearly false statements. It is important to understand that schizophrenia is a biological illness.

    Here are some things you can do to help your loved one:

    Get them treatment and encourage them to stay in treatment

    Remember that their beliefs or hallucinations seem very real to them

    Tell them that you acknowledge that everyone has the right to see things their own way

    Be respectful, supportive, and kind without tolerating dangerous or inappropriate behavior

    Check to see if there are any support groups in your area

    Autism or ASD and Schizophrenia are two different medical conditions that are linked to a human brain which have from years back been considered to be one and the same thing. However, there has been some rising disputes and concern about the diagnosis of these medical conditions in a bid to offer better treatment.

    Some doctors and researchers argue that both Autism and Schizophrenia are different onsets of the same medical condition and have different symptoms due to the different stages a patient undergoes through. Other researchers have found some ground to challenge this long standing fact which will be very beneficial in how both conditions are handled.

  • Autism

    Autism is conspired as a wide spectrum disorder hence the name Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    This is a development disability which can occur in any human being caused by brain abnormality.

    A typical definition of an individual suffering from autism is that he or she is suffering from social and communication skills development.

    However, Autism Spectrum Disorder occurs differently in all patients and although there are similar characteristics in all patients, they all have different and unique characteristics at some stage in their life as well as their portrayal of strength and challenges.

    This creates three categories based on the strengths and challenges under ASD. Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Development Disorder and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.

    Statistically all these disorders occur in about 1 child in every 59 in America and tends to occur more in boys than girls.

  • Schizophrenia

    This is medical disorder caused by a brain disorder affecting the thoughts, feelings and how this individual acts.

    This disorder is chronic and statistics indicate that is currently affects about 1 percent of the global adult population.

    There has been a general though in the world attributing violence to schizophrenia but this has over the past few years been disputed as symptoms vary from one individual to the other.

    However, in distinguishing between these two, it has been stated that both have different ages in a human being where a doctor or any other individual can notice or diagnose the possibility of these two disorders.

    Autism occurs very early in an individual and this can happen as early as 6 months after the birth of a child.

    Clear indications or signs of this disorder occur or can be visible within the first three years of a child’s life.

    Some will develop normally within the first few years of this bracket only to have a full blown effect at the last few months the three years while others will have a gradual occurrence of the symptoms.

    On the other hand, Schizophrenia occurs later in a young individual’s life starting at around 16 to 30 years.

    This aspect makes Schizophrenia very disabling in an individual’s life as they have already established a system in their life which they are unable to continue when diagnosed with this disability.

    More males tend to develop the symptoms of Schizophrenia at an earlier age as compared to females.

    This disorder has the ability to mask itself in a person’s life for many years but come on to undo his or her life at a later stage.

  • Social Dysfunctions

    Autistic and Schizophrenic patients all suffer from social impairment as they lose the ability to show emotions as well as judgement of other people’s feelings and emotions.

    This is due to the fact that researchers have discovered that some brain cells in these patients that process social information become less active with every passing day of the disorders.

    However, Schizophrenic patients have been attributed to ill will in the society as they tend to be more reactive to peoples actions in the efforts of helping them.

    This is also linked to the high hallucination rate suffered by any person suffering from Schizophrenia.

    Autistic patients on the other hand have portrayed a more mild reaction and suffer from very few hallucinations as compared to Schizophrenia.

    They are also more socially cynical based on their past experiences with people trying to handle or understand their behaviour.

    Although these two disorders are increasingly becoming more prevalent in the global population, it is evident that separating them from their early stages and diagnosing one against the other has made it easier to treat and handle Autism and Schizophrenia which is the ultimate goal by the researchers and doctors in the medical world

  • Video references:

    https://youtu.be/y-yOH9Aqdh

    will develop normally within the first few years of this bracket

    https://youtu.be/o4jiVV8Un-

 Vinyl vs Digital: Revisited

 

  • Comparing Compact Discs (CDs) to vinyl or gramophone records is the musical equivalent of comparing digital photography with film photography. CDs and vinyl records are both audio storage and playback formats based on rotating discs, from different times in music history. The CD audio is digitally encoded and read by a laser, while analog vinyl audio is physically read by a needle.

  • The digital music format of CDs (and increasingly MP3s) is the dominant choice today for professionals and consumers alike. From a technical standpoint, CD audio is far superior to vinyl, but there’s always a certain niche of people who prefer the analog method and claim something is lost from the conversion of sound into digital data. Not surprisingly, this niche is expanding as old-fashioned vinyl records are experiencing renaissance among modern music enthusiasts, recording artists and audiophiles alike.

  • Sound Quality

    From a technical standpoint, digital CD audio quality is clearly superior to vinyl. CDs have a better signal-to-noise ratio (i.e. there is less interference from hissing, turntable rumble, etc.), better stereo channel separation, and have no variation in playback speed. The arguments against digital audio come from the fact that no matter how precise the sampling (~44,000 times per second is standard), the breaking down of music into binary data can never match the smooth and continuous nature of analog vinyl. Just like a million little square pixels can never make a perfect curve in a picture if you look closely enough.

  • Vinyl, undeniably prone to physical interference and noise, has a growing reputation for a warmer, more life-like sound. The technical arguments for this usually center on the inherent jaggedness of digital sampling, despite the fact that high sample rates combined with anti-aliasing (smoothing of the edges) technically negates this argument. However, the subjective claim of an overall “better” sound certainly remains among many enthusiasts and professional musicians.

    Digital Music as Source for Vinyl

    Writing for the Wall Street Journal, Neil Shah reported in his article Why Vinyl’s Boom is Over that
    “Old LPs were cut from analog tapes–that’s why they sound so high quality. But the majority of today’s new and re-issued vinyl albums–around 80% or more, several experts estimate–start from digital files, even lower-quality CDs. These digital files are often loud and harsh-sounding, optimized for ear-buds, not living rooms. So the new vinyl LP is sometimes inferior to what a consumer hears on a CD.

    Major labels claim they use original analog masters. They may have the time and budget to issue LPs from analog tapes but smaller labels often cut corners when they can’t afford the engineering and record-pressing expenses of using tape.”

    Fragility and Lifespan
    CDs experience no physical degradation from repeated playings, as the laser read mechanism does not physically wear down the surface. CDs are less sensitive to temperature, humidity and rough handling than vinyl, but are still susceptible to scratches and extreme temperatures or conditions. Stamped discs do not lose quality over time, but the CD-R and CD-RW formats used in-home by consumers can slowly degrade over several years.

  • Vinyl discs do begin to degrade in quality through repeated playings, as the read mechanism is a need that operates through physical friction with the disc. Vinyl is also more sensitive to heat, humidity, scratches and dust. A collection of vinyl records must be stored in a controlled environment to prevent degradation.

  • Amateur Participation

    The advent of CD-R and CD-RW formats, which, rather than being factory-stamped, use photosensitive dyes to allow for writing by capable disc drives, has opened the door for anyone with a modern computer to create their own CDs at a very cheap cost. Digital audio can be shared easily and instantly, which has led to a major decentralization of the entire music business. Now amateurs can digitally record music, create CDs, and sell the music directly.

    The process of printing vinyl discs and recording high-quality analog audio remains largely in the hands of experts, as the required equipment is expensive.

  • Take a look at the graph below. Original sound is analog by definition. A digital recording takes snapshots of the analog signal at a certain rate (for CDs it is 44,100 times per second) and measures each snapshot with a certain accuracy (for CDs it is 16-bit, which means the value must be one of 65,536 possible values).

  • This means that, by definition, a digital recording is not capturing the complete sound wave. It is approximating it with a series of steps. Some sounds that have very quick transitions, such as a drum beat or a trumpet’s tone, will be distorted because they change too quickly for the sample rate.

  • your home stereo the CD or DVD player takes this digital recording and converts it to an analog signal, which is fed to your amplifier. The amplifier then raises the voltage of the signal to a level powerful enough to drive your speaker.

  • A vinyl record has a groove carved into it that mirrors the original sound’s waveform. This means that no information is lost. The output of a record player is analog. It can be fed directly to your amplifier with no conversion.

  • This means that the waveforms from a vinyl recording can be much more accurate, and that can be heard in the richness of the sound. But there is a downside, any specks of dust or damage to the disc can be heard as noise or static. During quiet spots in songs this noise may be heard over the music. Digital recordings don’t degrade over time, and if the digital recording contains silence, then there will be no noise.

  • From the graph you can see that CD quality audio does not do a very good job of replicating the original signal. The main ways to improve the quality of a digital recording are to increase the sampling rate and to increase the accuracy of the sampling.

  • The recording industry has a new standard for DVD audio discs that will greatly improve the sound quality. The table below lists the sampling rate and the accuracy for CD recordings, and the maximum sampling rate and accuracy for DVD recordings. DVDs can hold 74 minutes of music at their highest quality level. CDs can also hold 74 minutes of music. By lowering either the sampling rate or the accuracy, DVDs can hold more music. For instance a DVD can hold almost 7 hours of CD quality audio.

  • Sampling Rate

    CD Audio = 44.1 kHz

    DVD Audio = 192 kHz

    Samples per second

    CD Audio = 44,100

    DVD Audio = 192,000

    Sampling Accuracy

    CD Audio = 16-bit

    DVD Audio = 24-bit

    Number of Possible Output Levels

    CD Audio = 65,536

    DVD Audio = 16,777,216

    DVD audio discs and players are rare right now, but they will become more common, and the difference in sound quality should be noticeable. To take advantage of higher quality DVD audio discs, however, you will need a DVD player with a 192kHz/24-bit digital to analog converter. Most DVD players only have a 96kHz/24-bit digital to analog converter. So if you are planning to take full advantage of DVD audio be sure to look for a 192kHz/24-bit DAC.

  • Video references:

 The effects of fasting on the brain

 

  • The effects of fasting on the brain

    xMark Mattson, a neuroscientist at the National Institute on Aging and a professor at Johns Hopkins University, reveals the surprising brain benefits of fasting……

  • What is fasting?

    “The way we as scientists who study fasting define it is not consuming food for a long enough period of time to elevate the levels of compounds called ketones. In the fed state — that is, when you’re not fasting — glucose is the primary fuel used by cells, including neurons. Fasting depletes the liver’s store of glucose, prompting fat cells to release fats. The fats travel to the liver where they’re converted into ketones, which are essentially small pieces of fats that cells can use as an energy source.

    This metabolic switch — going from using glucose to using ketones as an energy source — happens after about 10 to 14 hours of not consuming food, depending on how active you are. Exercise will accelerate the onset of the switch.

    There are different types of fasting regimens. In lab animals, the main regimen we use is alternate-day fasting where the rats or mice have no food for a 24-hour period, followed by a 24-hour period where they can eat, and so on. Alternatively, you can restrict the amount of time animals have access to food to a four- to six-hour window so that they’re fasting between 18 and 20 hours a day. In people, we’ve studied a fasting regimen called the 5:2 diet, where people eat normally for five days out of the week and then eat only about 500 calories on the other two days.

  • What happens to the brain and body when an animal fasts?

    In an animal in the wild, like a cougar or a wolf that hasn’t killed any prey in a couple of weeks, during that time they’re pretty much running on ketones rather than glucose. Obviously, it’s important that their brain and body are able to function well in that fasted state. And that’s what we’re finding in lab animals — the brain and body actually perform better during fasting. In the case of the brain, cognitive function, learning, memory, and alertness are all increased by fasting. And in the body, we recently found that mice maintained on an alternate-day fasting diet during a month of treadmill training have better endurance than mice fed every day. So intermittent fasting enhanced the mice’s physical performance.

  • How does fasting improve cognitive function in mice?

    In lab animals, fasting, as well as exercise, stimulates the production of a protein in nerve cells called brain-derived neurotrophic factor, or BDNF. This protein plays critical roles in learning, memory, and the generation of new nerve cells in the hippocampus. BDNF also makes neurons more resistant to stress. Fasting also triggers a process called autophagy, where cells remove damaged molecules and dysfunctional mitochondria, and turns off cell growth. So neurons are in a kind of “resource conservation and stress resistance” mode during fasting. When the animal, and by extrapolation probably the human, eats after fasting, neurons shift to a “growth” mode — they make lots of proteins, grow, and form new synapses. We think these cycles of metabolic challenge, whether it’s exercise or fasting, and then a recovery period may optimize neuroplasticity, learning, memory, and the resistance of the brain to stress.”

  • This has been known throughout history. In Ancient Greece, the great thinkers would fast for days on end, not because they needed to lose weight, but because they believed (correctly) that fasting would increase their mental agility. Even today, we marvel at the ancient Greek philosophers and mathematicians. In stories of Japanese prisoners of war in World War II (Unbroken by Laura Hillenbrand), many have described the amazing clarity of thought that often accompanies starvation. In this book, the main character describes a prisoner who would read entire books from memory, and another who learned the Norwegian language in a few weeks. Incredibly, these feats were so commonplace that prisoners simply accepted it as a fact of life that starvation increases cognitive ability.

  • When we say we are ‘hungry’ for something (hungry for power, hungry for attention), does it mean we are slothful and dull? No, it means that we are hyper-vigilant and energetic. So, fasting and hunger clearly activate us towards our goal. People always worry that fasting will dull their senses, but in fact, it has the opposite, energizing effect……

  • Fasting and neuro-degenerative diseases
    There are also very interesting mouse models of neuro-degenerative diseases. Mice maintained on IF, compared to normal mice, showed less age-related deterioration of neurons and less symptoms in models of Alzheimers disease, Parksinon’s and Huntington’s disease…..

    Fasting might prevent Alzheimer’s disease
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of proteins. There are two main classes – amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (tau protein). The symptoms of AD correlate closely with the accumulation of these plaques and tangles. It is believed that these abnormal proteins destroy the synaptic connections in the memory and cognition areas of the brain.

  • Certain proteins (HSP-70) act to prevent damage and misfolding of the tau and amyloid proteins. In mouse models, alternate daily fasting increased the levels of HSP-70. Autophagy removes these tau and amyloid proteins when they are damaged beyond repair. This process, too, is stimulated by fasting.

    There is substantial evidence that risk of AD is related to obesity. A recent population based twin study demonstrated that weight gain in middle age predisposes to AD.

    Taken together, this suggests a fascinating possibility in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. Over 5 million American have AD and this number will likely increase rapidly due to the aging population. AD creates significant burdens upon families that are forced to care for their afflicted members.

    Certainly fasting may have significant benefits in reducing weight, type 2 diabetes along with its complications – eye damage, kidney disease, nerve damage, heart attacks, strokes, cancer. However, the possibility also exists that it may prevent the development of Alzheimer’s disease as well.

    The method of protection may also have to do with autophagy – a cellular self cleansing process that may help removed damaged proteins from the body and brain. Since AD may result from the abnormal accumulation of Tau protein or amyloid protein, fasting may provide a unique opportunity to rid the body of these abnormal proteins.

    “I fast for greater physical and mental efficiency.” – Plato (428-348 B.C.)

  • Video references:

  • Further reading:

    J.Suzuki, Y. Yamauchi, M. Horikawa and S. Yamagata, ‘Fasting therapy for psychosomatic diseases with special reference to its indication and therapeutic mechanism’, Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 118 : 245-259, 1976.

    *2. A. Kasamatsu and T. Hirai, ‘An electroencephalographic study on Zen meditation (Zazen)’, Folia Psychiat. Nenrol. Jap-, 20:315-336, 1966.

    *3. J. P. Banquet, ‘Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation’, Electroenceph. Clin. Neuro-physiol, 35: 143-15, 1973.

    *4. H. Yamamoto, J. Suzuki and Y. Yamauchi, ‘Psychophysiological study of fasting therapy’, Proc. 12th Eur. Conf. Psychosom. Res., Psychother. Psychosom., 32:229-240, 1979.